History of the Low-Fat Movement
Since the 1980s, physicians, the federal government, the food industry, and popular media have championed the low-fat approach to dieting and weight control. The idea stemmed from a few studies published in the 1940s, which showed a correlation between high-fat diets and high-cholesterol levels. Because high-cholesterol levels were known to be a major risk factor for heart disease, low-fat diets were highly recommended as a preventive measure for at-risk individuals, and eventually for the entire nation. This advice became so widespread by the 1980s that reduced-fat and low-fat options dominated the diet-related product market.
The Argument for Low-Fat Dairy
Although this national preoccupation with low-fat products has waned since the 1990s, low-fat dairy products have sustained their popularity. Low-fat dairy products are lower in calories and saturated fat than their full-fat counterparts, while still boasting substantial amounts of protein and calcium. To experts worried about slowing the impending “obesity epidemic”, low-fat dairy at first seems an obvious choice – especially if choosing low-fat products can help prevent heart disease.
The Issue with the Low-Fat Dairy Argument
There’s just one problem with this logic – according to a review article recently published in the European Journal of Nutrition, there is no conclusive evidence to suggest that full-fat dairy consumption is associated with increased risk of obesity, heart disease, or diabetes. In fact, in 11 of the 16 studies reviewed, high-fat dairy intake was inversely associated with obesity risk. In a 12-year longitudinal study conducted in Sweden, researchers Dr. Sara Holmberg and Dr. Andres Thelin found that men who reported a low intake of dairy fat (skim milk, no butter, etc.) had a higher risk of developing obesity in the 12-year period than were men who reported a high intake of dairy fat.
Why Whole Dairy?
Much of this research may come as a surprise to those familiar with the calories-in, calories-out model of weight maintenance. How could eating dairy products that are significantly higher in calories help people avoid weight gain?
Researchers aren’t certain why full-fat dairy may aid in healthy weight maintenance, but there are a few ideas gaining traction in the field:
- To produce low-fat dairy products, “excess milk fat” is separated out of whole dairy. Much of this “excess milk fat” is made up of fatty acids found in milk, which are thought to make people feel full sooner and stay full longer. Thus, low-fat dairy products simply don’t keep you as full as whole dairy products do.
- The fatty acids in whole milk also make whole dairy products richer, thicker, and more satisfying, which can add to the experience of fullness, and keep you full for longer.
- Role in Gene Expression & Hormone Regulation.
- The fatty acids found in whole milk may be involved with gene expression and hormone regulation in the body. Though these relationships are unclear, it is possible that fatty acids speed up metabolism or limit the body’s storage of fat.
- Real Food, Not Just Nutrients.
- Though macronutrient content can tell us a lot about the health benefits of food, whole fat dairy is more than just the sum of its (major) parts. Real food is a complex mix of macro (fat, carbohydrates, protein) and micro (vitamins and minerals) nutrients. Absorption of all of these macro and micronutrients is dependent upon several factors, so altering the macronutrient breakdown of dairy products (by removing fat) changes the way these products are metabolized by the body.For instance, Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat soluble nutrients, which means that absorption of these nutrients is compromised when no fat is present.
When I have helped my clients with eating disorders to add full fat diary products back into their diet after a period of having avoided them, positive changes take place. They often notice a decrease in food obsession and a reduction in volume of intake. Although most clients fear overeating whole full fat (and higher calorie) products, this does NOT happen. Instead, portion control often occurs more naturally since satiety comes from the taste, texture, & actual full fat macronutrient presence. Clients recognize that they CAN feel in control but still go to their favorite real full fat foods which they previously feared and avoided. In reality, the low fat foods were the ones that they could not limit. I have only seen satiety benefits as well as metabolic benefits of a diet higher in fat, 30-35% of total calories. To try it for yourself, I suggest:
Some recipes incorporating whole fats
- *Maple Hill Creamery 100% Grass-Fed Organic Milk Creamline Yogurt-Lemon flavored with granola & banana for breakfast
- *The Greek Gods Greek Yogurt-Honey Strawberry flavored with cut up pear for a snack
- *Toasted Caprese Open Faced Sandwich-
- French Sandwich Roll-cut in half
- Expeller Pressed Extra Virgin Olive Oil
- Fresh Basil Leaves
- Heirloom Tomatoes Sliced
Galbani Fresh Whole Milk Mozzarella or Galbani Whole Milk Low-Moisture Mozzarella Cheese
Pink Himalayan Salt
- Drizzle the olive oil over each half of the sliced French roll
- Place sliced Whole Milk Mozzarella Cheese over the French roll with olive oil
- Lay Basil Leaves on top of the Mozzarella
- Lay sliced Heirloom Tomatoes over the Basil
- Grind & sprinkle Pink Himalayan Salt over the Tomatoes
- Opened faced-Toast in toaster oven for 3-5 minutes or heat in oven 350 degrees F for 5-8 minutes
- For background information on the ideology of low-fat diets in the United States, refer to this article from the Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences.
- The full article from European Journal of Nutrition can be found here.
- The full article from the Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care can be found here.
- For a through and clear explanation of this topic, refer to this TIME Magazine article.
- An additional study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition can be found here and is summarized here.
- Another article is here.
Research Assistant, Erin Standen contributed to the writing and research of this post.